- PROCTER: PROnunciation-aware ConTextual adaptER for personalized speech recognition in neural transducers(arXiv)
Abstract : End-to-End (E2E) automatic speech recognition (ASR) systems used in voice assistants often have difficulties recognizing infrequent words personalized to the user, such as names and places. Rare words often have non-trivial pronunciations, and in such cases, human knowledge in the form of a pronunciation lexicon can be useful. We propose a PROnunCiation-aware conTextual adaptER (PROCTER) that dynamically injects lexicon knowledge into an RNN-T model by adding a phonemic embedding along with a textual embedding. The experimental results show that the proposed PROCTER architecture outperforms the baseline RNN-T model by improving the word error rate (WER) by 44% and 57% when measured on personalized entities and personalized rare entities, respectively, while increasing the model size (number of trainable parameters) by only 1%. Furthermore, when evaluated in a zero-shot setting to recognize personalized device names, we observe 7% WER improvement with PROCTER, as compared to only 1% WER improvement with text-only contextual attention
2.Fast and accurate factorized neural transducer for text adaption of end-to-end speech recognition models (arXiv)
Abstract : Neural transducer is now the most popular end-to-end model for speech recognition, due to its naturally streaming ability. However, it is challenging to adapt it with text-only data. Factorized neural transducer (FNT) model was proposed to mitigate this problem. The improved adaptation ability of FNT on text-only adaptation data came at the cost of lowered accuracy compared to the standard neural transducer model. We propose several methods to improve the performance of the FNT model. They are: adding CTC criterion during training, adding KL divergence loss during adaptation, using a pre-trained language model to seed the vocabulary predictor, and an efficient adaptation approach by interpolating the vocabulary predictor with the n-gram language model. A combination of these approaches results in a relative word-error-rate reduction of 9.48% from the standard FNT model. Furthermore, n-gram interpolation with the vocabulary predictor improves the adaptation speed hugely with satisfactory adaptation performance.