- A Comprehensive Survey of the Tactile Internet: State of the art and Research Directions(arXiv)
Abstract : The Internet has made several giant leaps over the years, from a fixed to a mobile Internet, then to the Internet of Things, and now to a Tactile Internet. The Tactile Internet goes far beyond data, audio and video delivery over fixed and mobile networks, and even beyond allowing communication and collaboration among things. It is expected to enable haptic communication and allow skill set delivery over networks. Some examples of potential applications are tele-surgery, vehicle fleets, augmented reality and industrial process automation. Several papers already cover many of the Tactile Internet-related concepts and technologies, such as haptic codecs, applications, and supporting technologies. However, none of them offers a comprehensive survey of the Tactile Internet, including its architectures and algorithms. Furthermore, none of them provides a systematic and critical review of the existing solutions. To address these lacunae, we provide a comprehensive survey of the architectures and algorithms proposed to date for the Tactile Internet. In addition, we critically review them using a well-defined set of requirements and discuss some of the lessons learned as well as the most promising research directions
2. Reconfigurable Computing Applied to Latency Reduction for the Tactile Internet(arXiv)
Abstract : Tactile internet applications allow robotic devices to be remotely controlled over a communication medium with an unnoticeable time delay. In a bilateral communication, the acceptable round trip latency is usually in the order of 1ms up to 10ms depending on the application requirements. It is estimated that 70% of the total latency is generated by the communication network, and the remaining 30% is produced by master and slave devices. Thus, this paper aims to propose a strategy to reduce 30% of the total latency that is produced by such devices. The strategy is to apply reconfigurable computation using FPGAs to minimize the execution time of device-associated algorithms. With this in mind, this work presents a hardware reference model for modules that implement nonlinear positioning and force calculations as well as a tactile system formed by two robotic manipulators. In addition to presenting the implementation details, simulations and experimental tests are performed in order to validate the proposed model. Results associated with the FPGA sampling rate, throughput, latency, and post-synthesis occupancy area are analyzed.